Schüsse reissen die luft doch wir küssen

So I’m listening to my Starry Bear playlist while reading “A Fullness of Living Forces”: Viacheslav Ivanov’s Poetics of Theurgy by Jeffrey T. Riggs when “Helden” comes on. It took me an embarrassingly long time to realize that Bowie was singing the German version. 

Do not click that link

Guasón and I are discussing Bacchic xoana, which reminded me of one of the most famous of all — the thunderous miracle which occurred at Magnḗsĭa ad Mæándrum. Don’t just check it out — feel free to join in!

Over here, however, we’re discussing the mysteries — so definitely do not click that link!

Circles, etc.

I’m not sure if any scholars have made this connection before, but this inscription:

ISmyrna 726
According to the decree of the initiates of the Goddess Kore’s sacred enclosure and those who stepped in (i.e. were initiated, or stepped into the sacred enclosure) who are in Smyrna together with the . . .

Seems to add some important context to one of the gold leaves from Thurii:

A: I come from the pure, o Pure Queen of the earthly ones, Eukles, Eubouleus, and You other Immortal Gods! I too claim to be of your blessed race, but Fate and other Immortal Gods conquered me, the star-smiting thunder. And I flew out from the hard and deeply-grievous circle, and stepped onto the crown with my swift feet, and slipped into the bosom of the Mistress (Kore), the Queen of the Underworld. And I stepped out from the crown with my swift feet.
B: Happy and blessed one! You shall be a god instead of a mortal.
A: I have fallen as a kid into milk.

Red thoughts

There are a pair of quotes that have long intrigued me. They are:

Pausanias, Description of Greece 2.2.6-7
The things worthy of mention in the city of Corinth include the extant remains of antiquity, but the greater number of them belong to the period of its second ascendancy. On the market-place, where most of the sanctuaries are, stand Artemis surnamed Ephesian and wooden images of Dionysos, which are covered with gold with the exception of their faces; these are ornamented with red paint. They are called Lysios and Bakcheios, and I too give the story told about them. They say that Pentheus treated Dionysos spitefully, his crowning outrage being that he went to Kithairon, to spy upon the women, and climbing up a tree beheld what was done. When the women detected Pentheus, they immediately dragged him down, and joined in tearing him, living as he was, limb from limb. Afterwards, as the Corinthians say, the Pythian priestess commanded them by an oracle to discover that tree and to worship it equally with the God. For this reason they have made these images from the tree.

Pausanias, Description of Greece 7.26.11
You may reckon Phelloe one of the towns in Greece best supplied with flowing water. There are sanctuaries of Dionysos and of Artemis. The Goddess is of bronze, and is taking an arrow from her quiver. The image of Dionysos is painted with vermilion. On going down from Aegeira to the port, and walking on again, we see on the right of the road the sanctuary of the Huntress, where they say the goat crouched.

I have questions. Like: why is this distinct practice found in such vastly different parts of Greece? How commonplace was it? What did it represent? Why are Dionysos and Artemis paired in both instances?

I was also curious why the translator used different words for red – was it just a creative flourish or reflective of the original Greek, and if so what word(s) did Pausanias employ in his text?

Thankfully that last one is easy enough to answer. Here are the texts in Greek, with the words in question bolded.

λόγου δὲ ἄξια ἐν τῇ πόλει τὰ μὲν λειπόμενα ἔτι τῶν ἀρχαίων ἐστίν, τὰ δὲ πολλὰ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀκμῆς ἐποιήθη τῆς ὕστερον. ἔστιν οὖν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀγορᾶς— ἐνταῦθα γὰρ πλεῖστά ἐστι τῶν ἱερῶν—Ἄρτεμίς τε ἐπίκλησιν Ἐφεσία καὶ Διονύσου ξόανα ἐπίχρυσα πλὴν τῶν προσώπων: τὰ δὲ πρόσωπα ἀλοιφῇ σφισιν ἐρυθρᾷ κεκόσμηται: Λύσιον δέ, τὸν δὲ Βάκχειον ὀνομάζουσι. (2.2.6)

εἰ δέ τινα τῶν ἐν Ἕλλησι πολισματίων ἀφθόνῳ καταρρεῖται τῷ ὕδατι, ἀριθμεῖν καὶ τὴν Φελλόην ἔστιν ἐν τούτοις. θεῶν δὲ ἱερὰ Διονύσου καὶ Ἀρτέμιδός ἐστιν: ἡ μὲν χαλκοῦ πεποίηται, βέλος δὲ ἐκ φαρέτρας λαμβάνουσα: τῷ Διονύσῳ δὲ ὑπὸ κινναβάρεως τὸ ἄγαλμά ἐστιν ἐπηνθισμένον. ἐς δὲ τὸ ἐπίνειον καταβᾶσιν ἐξ Αἰγείρας καὶ αὖθις ἐς τὰ πρόσω βαδίζουσιν ἔστιν ἐν δεξιᾷ τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ ἱερὸν τῆς Ἀγροτέρας, ἔνθα τὴν αἶγα ὀκλάσαι λέγουσιν. (7.26.11)

And it turns out that they are slightly different. The first is ἐρυθρᾷ from ἐρυθρός, the standard Greek word for red, which we use in the Starry Bull tradition to refer to the period from July to September, when we celebrate Dionysos in his Hunter aspect and honor the Furious Host alongside him.

In the second instance, however, Pausanias uses κινναβάρεως which the Little Liddle gives as:

cinnabar, bisulphuret of mercury, whence vermilion is obtained; thought by some to be serpent’s blood

And a little later on ἐπηνθισμένον:

to deck as with flowers, make bright-coloured; decorate, adorn; give one a red tint; brighten, give lustre to a dye.


Our polytheism is so hard

One of the important things to keep in mind is that Orphism is an umbrella term beneath which gather a number of similar but disparate traditions. This is why I am always careful to specify that the Starry Bull tradition is a branch of Bacchic Orphism. Partly this has to do with the primary divinities honored — in Crete, Athens and Platonism it’s Zeus, in Pythagoreanism and Hyperborea it’s Apollon, in Southern Italy it’s Persephone and Dionysos, in Thrace it’s a syncretic Dionysos-Apollon/Helios or Sabazios and in various locales it’s Demeter or Rheia/Kybele. Each of these has its own customs, practices, tabboos, beliefs (sometimes including cosmology and eschatology) which can make generalizing about Orphism both difficult and problematic. Hence why so much of the literature on the subject is misleading or simply wrong. And while these may be the most prominent deities in their respective traditions don’t for a moment think they’re the only ones; Orphism is one of the hardest of ancient polytheisms, often separating divinities I tend to lump together or incorporating local indigenous divinities. I’m simplifying this for the sake of discussion. 

Now with less male genitalia

[Note: this post was deleted by WordPress without any notice, etc. likely because of the accompanying image which contained male nudity. Ironically, my post on Sokrates’ polygamy, which had a pic of two totally naked chicks in it, did not trigger the censors. So here it is again, now with less male genitalia.]

Don’t worry! Just because Dionysos has some asexual aspects doesn’t mean he’s a prude. There are cocks and prostitutes (especially Thaïs and Phryne) lying about everywhere — as well as Priapos, who is more cock than man, and his son with the Goddess Aphrodite. (Not to mention the God is queer as a 3$ bill.) 

Life is a festival

εἶναι μανιώδη πάντα τἀνθρώπων ὅλως,
ἀποδημίας δὲ τυγχάνειν ἡμᾶς ἀεὶ τοὺς ζῶντας,
ὥσπερ εἰς πανήγυρίν τινα ἀφειμένους ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου καὶ τοῦ σκότους
εἰς τὴν διατριβὴν εἰς τὸ φῶς τε τοῦθ᾿, ὃ δὴ ὁρῶμεν ὃς δ᾿ἂν πλεῖστα γελάσηι
καὶ πίηι καὶ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης ἀντιλάβηται τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον ὃν ἀφεῖται,
κἂν τύχηι γ᾿, ἐράνου τινός, πανηγυρίσας ἥδιστ᾿ ἀπῆλθεν οἴκαδε.

Human existence is entirely, completely insane,
and as long as we’re alive, we’re enjoying a reprieve,
like going to a festival; we’ve been released from death
and darkness, and allowed to have a party in this light we see.
And whoever laughs the most, and drinks the most, and grabs as much
Aphrodite during the time he’s released, or a dinner party if he gets
the chance— he’s the happiest when he goes home after the festival. (Alexis fr. 222, 9–17)


Pseudo-Scymnus, Circuit of the Earth 748
Odessa, which was founded by the Milesians when Astyages was ruler of Media; this has the Krobyzan Thracians in a ring around it. Nearby Dionysopolis, which first was named Krounoi from its founts of water, they say is called Dionysopolis after a Dionysiac statue which was retrieved from the sea there.

Katerina Amanatidou, The cult of Dionysos in the Black Sea region
In Odessa’s necropolis was unearthed the remains of a coroplastic workshop, dated from the 3rd century BC, which produced a variety of terracotta statuettes intended for the decoration of sarcophagi. Among the produced types were representations of Dionysos, of Satyrs and Maenads. A miniature mask of a smiling Silen wreathed with ivy leaves was found in the debris of the building. Furthermore, clay figurines of Dionysos and his wife Ariadne came to light at excavations in other parts of the city. Likewise, votive reliefs made of lead and shaped as bull heads were found at the site. Those reliefs that were encircled with a decoration of grapes functioned, probably, as offerings to the god. An imported amphora neck of the Hellenistic period bearing the relief image of a Satyr’s head was also discovered. Finally, the excavations yielded an almost life-size marble statue of a Satyr and two attic red figure bell craters bearing Dionysian scenes with Satyrs and Maenads.

Thunder is heard in the clear sky

Suidas s.v. Nemesis
Nemesis : Vengeance, justice, outrage, divine jealousy, fortune. ‘Perceiving Nemesis, the executioner of braggarts, who pursued them with justice.’ And again : ‘he did not escape the notice of Nemesis who opposes all the arrogant, but was compelled to be taught a lesson in his own misfortunes.’ ‘Nemesis was present, she who watches the things of the earth’; or in other words, she who watches unjust acts. Babrios says this in the Fables. And Aelian says : ‘palpable evidence of Nemesis the overseer, chastizing proud and disdainful ways.’ And a proverb : ‘At least Nemesis walks at your feet’; that is to say that the goddess swiftly pursues wrong-doers. ‘Unnoticed she walks at your feet, snaps your haughty neck, and always holds sway over your sustenance with her forearm.’

Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.33.4
A little way inland from Rhamnos is a sanctuary of Nemesis, the most implacable deity to men of violence. It is thought that the wrath of this goddess fell also upon the foreigners [i.e. the Persian army] who landed at Marathon.

Speaking of wives

Speaking of wives, did you know that Sokrates (who himself espoused many Orphic ideas) had two of them?

[fr. 54a Wehrli = Cyril Adv. Iul. 6.186] For Porphyry has again written as follows about him: “In matters having to do with his life and with every other issue he was easily satisfied (εὔκολον) and required few material goods in his daily life. He had a very strong sex drive (τὴν τῶν ἀφροδισίων χρῆσινσφοδρότερον), but there was no injustice (ἀδικίαν) attached to it. For he had sex (χρῆσθαι) only with his wives (ταῖς γαμεταῖς) or with women who were commonly available (κοιναῖς). He came to have (σχεῖν) two women at the same time (δύογυναῖκαςἅμα): Xanthippe, who was a citizen and anyhow (πως) more commonly available (κοινοτέραν), and Myrto, the granddaughter of Aristides, son of Lysimachus. He took (λαβεῖν) Xanthippe after she got involved with him (περιπλακεῖσαν), and from her Lamprocles was born to him (ἑαυτῷ Λαμπροκλῆς ἐγένετο). But Myrto [he took] in marriage (γάμῳ), and from her [were born] Sophroniscus and Menexenus.

[fr. 54b Wehrli = Theodoret. Graec. aff. cur. 12.63–65] After having gone through these issues in detail, Aristoxenus shows that Socrates had also been enslaved to pleasures (ἡδυπαθείαις δεδουλωμένον). He says the following: “He had a very strong sex drive … [nearly identical to the above quote.] the son of Lysimachus. He took Xanthippe after she had sexual intercourse with him (προσπλακεῖσαν), and from her Lamprocles was born (ὁ Λαμπροκλῆς ἐγένετο). But Myrto [he took] having married her (γαμηθεῖσαν), and from her [were born] Sophroniscus and Menexenus. These women engaged in battle (ξυνάπτουσαι μάχην) with one another, and whenever they paused, they attacked Socrates, because he never prevented them from fighting but laughed when he saw them fighting with one another and with him. It is said (φησιν) that in his relationships Socrates was sometimes quarrelsome (φιλαπεχθήμονα), harsh (λοίδορον), and outrageous (ὑβριστικόν).

For more, check out Alessandro Stavru’s Aristoxenus on Socrates

No wonder Sokrates was so good at philosophia, as he often gave the following advice, “By all means, marry. If you get a good wife, you will be happy. If you get a bad one, you will be a philosopher.”

An Orphic conversation

Galina and I had an interesting conversation tonight about the Orphic text I posted earlier and certain parallels between the Vitki in the Northern tradition and Orpheotelestai within the Starry Bull tradition. We also discussed the history of Orphic scholarship, the major competing theories about what ancient Orphism was like and whether there were even individuals and communities of Orphikoi or if it was primarily a literary phenomenon, and the influence that Pythagoreanism and Platonism have played in our conception of it. (This, dear readers, is why I recommend marrying someone who is close to your intellectual and spiritual equal and why I would never date a normy. I’m sure there are plenty of nice, supportive and fuckable normies out there, and it’s possible to connect with a person on other and multiple levels but at some point you actually have to, you know, talk to them and my interests are pretty limited.)

And so I figured I’d remind folks what my take on these and other controversies within the field of Orphic studies happen to be. 

You can also find more writings on Bacchic Orphism and the Starry Bull tradition over at The Bakcheion.

An important discovery

The majority of what we possess of Orphic literature has come down to us in fragmentary form, mostly via quotations from late Neoplatonists who were likely using a compilation made in the Hellenistic period that went by the title of the Sacred Discourses in 24 Rhapsodies or the Orphic Rhapsodies for short. (Other texts have also come to light, such as the Orphic cosmological poem discussed in the Derveni papyrus, the ritual script known as the Gurob papyri, the eschatological texts and passwords written on gold lamellae which were buried with the dead, as well as the collection of Orphic Hymns that were likely composed by a community in 2nd century Asia Minor.) 

A year or so ago there was a great deal of excitement as an Orphic text surfaced as part of a palimpset found in a monastery in Sinai. The text was written in a book that had been scraped clean and reused to record assorted Vita or Lives of the Saints. Using infrared and other technologies scholars were able to read the material beneath the writings of the monks, and while a notice of this discovery circulated with a brief overview of the contents there was no translation available. 

Until now! 

While examining some articles by Giulia Rossetto of the Austrian Academy of Sciences I came across her initial translation of the Orphic hexameters from the Library of Saint Catherine’s monastery, which may be part of the Orphic Rhapsodies or a completely independent work. I am providing both the original Greek and her translation here. (The Greek was a bitch to get right, since the PDF wouldn’t permit me to simply copy&paste, so you better enjoy this!) 

I cannot begin to express how fucking cool this is.  

f. 2r + frg. 7r + frg. 8v 

] Ψ̅ [ 

] αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν’ ἄχνη .. [ ±3 ] .εν. [ 

. . ἱ]μερόccαν [

] εὐνήν [±2] ±4 ν [ ±14 ] κεν ἄμφωι [ 

] τέκνω ±19 [ ±8 ] . . . . c]

]… [

] Ἑρμείην χ . . ν ±3 μ]

] θνητοί ἄνθ[ρωποι τὰδε γὰρ π[ ±8  ] ενον [

] εζ ἀρχῆc παρή[  ±5  ] .αναπ. [  ±8  ] . τοc[ 

] Nυκτὸc ταμ[  ±6  ] αραοιπ[  ±5  ] θεcπεcίη Νύξ [ 

] Ζηνὶ κελαινεφ[έϊ  ±4  ] .νιπ [  ±7  ] εccηι [

] ἔχρηc’ Ἰδαίοιcιν  [  ±5  ]  ±3 δ[  ±7  ] ροιc [ 

] ±5  αρχεγο .[  ±15  ] .cεκουθεν [  

] ὧc φάτο Φερcεφονηι καὶ ἀπὸ θρόνου ὦρτο φαεινοῦ [ 

] cευατ’ οτιο[   ±11  κρυφίοιο μελ[ά]θρου [ 

] ἐκλήϊcεν Διονυcον ἐρίβρομον Εἰραφιώτην [ 

] ἴκελον [. .]γή . ρ μηνοc περιτελλοέμοιο [

] εἵμαcί τε cτ[±3]οντα kαι ἱμερτοῖc cτεφάνοἱcιν [

] παιδ’ εν χεροιν ±8 εων περικαλλὲc αγαλμα [

] αιν . [.] καρποφόρον Χαρίτων ἄπο κάλλοc ἔχουcα [ 

] και ῥ ’ επιγονα ±3 ή . .φ. αc⸌μ⸍μήδουcαφρο [

] καί μιν φωνήc[αc’ [

] ἀφρογενὲc Κυθρεια [

] οὗτοc τ. ρπ . . . . [ 

] τὸν δὲ φερο . . . .[ 

] ὧc φάτο Φερcεφονη

] ωc . δ . π . . . . [ 

] καί ραμ . . . . [ 

] ὦ Ζεῦ . . . .[ 

. . . . . . . . . . . .

‘And when the foam … lovely bed … both … son … Hermes … and the mortal human beings. These things indeed … from the beginning … of the [starry] Nyx … the divine Nyx … to Zeus,[son of Cronos], god of the dark clouds … proclaimed in the [Mount] Ida … [original] … So he/she spoke to Persephone and stood up from the shining throne … (he/she) hastened … of the hidden/secret house … (he/she) closed/confined Dionysus, loud-shouting, Eiraphiotes like…

οf (something) coming around … with garments … and with lovely crowns … the child in the hands … beautiful gift/statue/image … fruit-bearing … gifted with beauty by the Graces… [Aphrodite] … Αnd she/he addressed her …: foam-born Cythereia … this … So spoke Persephone … and … Zeus …’

f. 2v + frg. 7v + frg. 8r 

] ὅν ποτ’ ἐκιccο[ό]ρουν υc[ ±3 ]νί δαcκίωι ἄντρωι [ 

] ἔτρεφον ἀμβ[ροcί]οιc δι’ επεκόcμεον ω[ ±3 ] καλοῖc [ 

] νήπ[ιον ±7 ]. θεν ἀτὰρ μέγαν [ ±6 ] Ὄλυμπον [ 

] εξι [ ±18 ] κατά πετρινον ἄντρο(ν) [

] καλ. [ ±7 ] πωννυ[ ±3 ]cεδ[. .]c ±3 ποκομοιο [ 

] ωcτετιcευ[ ±6 ] φοc ὄρνιc αγ[ ±9 ] ενoc λίπεc εὐνή(ν) [ 

] πάμπαν αἱcιοc ἀπ[ ±3 ]τοc εμο. [ ±9 ] . τεονιαc  ̣[ 

] cῶι δὲ πόθωι χ[ ±6 ] ωcαν[ ±10 ]ν αἰθέρα θ’ ἁγνόν [ 

] πόντον τ’ ἠδ[ ±3 ] εροντοc[ ±5 χθονὶ χεῦμα κελαινό(ν) [ 

] θυὸν ἀκηχέμ[ενα ±2]. ρ.π.[  ±7 ] ἀλγινόεντοc [ 

] ετλην δ’ ειc Ἀΐδαο δόμουc cκοτ[ίο]υc καταβῆναι [ 

] Ἠελίου προλιποῦcα δόμουc ⸌φάοc⸍ λαμπράν τε Cελήνην [ 

] οὐράνιόν τε πόλον διὰ cὸν πόθον αμροτε κοῦρε [ 

] ὧc φάτο Κύπριc ἄναccα φίλον δ’ α[±2] πολλακι παιδα [

] αcπίcι ὡc ἀγάπαζε χέραc περὶ γυῖα [β]αλοῦcα[ 

] καὶ τρέφεν ἠδ’ ἀτίταλλεν ἐν ἀγκα[λί]δεccιν ἔχουcα [ 

] μίμ[ν]ε δ’ ἄρ εἰν Ἀΐδαο δόμοιc ὑπὸ κεύθεcι γαίηc [ 

                   ]ρωι τριγόνωι πολυωνυμωι Ἠρικεπαίωι [

]φ[  ±9 ]εζ[  ±4  ]ηc[  ±3  ]υνικηται [

                                             ] Φεφονείηιc [

                                           ] ⸌cι⸍… λεα ⸌μη⸍τρόc [

                                           ] ροε . διὰ χῶρον [

                                           ].[ ±4 ] ον ἄνθοc [ 

                                           ] . . χι λάχνηι [

                                           ]c υλοιν [

                                           ] χ Διονύcωι [

. . . . . . . . . . . .

‘So, they crowned the child with ivy … in a shady cave, they fed him with divine things … they adorned him with beautiful … great Olympus … under the stony cave … wholly good omen …you left the wedding bed … for your desire … and the pure air and the sea … the dark stream… in anguish of heart … of something painful … I suffered for the descent in the dark houses of Hades, after leaving the houses/the light of Helios and the shining Selene and the celestial vault for your desire, immortal young man. So she spoke, Cypris queen … with the shields as she hugged/embraced the dear son many times flinging her arms around him … and nursed and cared for him, holding (him) in her arms; remained in the houses of Hades, under the deep earth … to the three times born, with many names, Herikepaios … of Persephone … of the mother … in the land … the flower … wool/hair … to Dionysus’

f. 6r 

. . . . . . . . . . . .

[ ±5 ] νουc κρύβδην εχον ε [

] τον δε καλύψαντεc ννμφηϊον [±2]. νονα [

] κύκλωι δ’ ἀμφὶ θρόνον π. .[ ±5 ] παντεc [ 

] ἧχι περ οἶνοc ἔφηc τότε τιμ[ ±3 ] . . . . γοc αἴcηc [

] ἄλλοτε δη ±3 πάνα διαμπερέωc ἐτέλεccαν [

] ἄψ δ’ αποπα[.] θελοντοc c̣ων κεφλη . τεκ ±2 υ ±2 μα [

] καὶ τότε δὴ τομονει[ ±3 ] . ον πέλεκυν τολυπεύω(ν) [

] Ἄκμων παιδ[οc] δ’ ἔναντα κατεcτάθη ειλε δ.. αμεοc [

] ἄθ[ ±3 ]ου.ω ειδ[.]ν ἀνώϊcτ’ εργατε δ οὖν τ. ±3 [

] αὐτὰρ ἔπειτ’ [±2] κρατα θενοεμεcον ἦλθε δενοινου [

] πάντα φόβον προϊειc ε[.]πωc προἀ[ ±4 ] Διὸc ἕδρη[ν [

] Κύρβαc τ’ ἀντήμυνεν εγείνετο δ’ ἔργ’ ὑπεροπ [

] πρώτουc δ’ εἰcῆιξ’ ἅρπην μετὰ χερcὶ τιτ [

] φάc ταναδ ἄλλοθεν ἄλλον χεπερὶ [

] Ἠὼc δ’ οὐδ’ ώc άπέλειπε Διόc [ 

] κ. cεο[.]δ’ εὐπλέκτοιο . [

] γυμνοῦντεc αcφά [

] καὶ τότε δὴ πρωτε [

] ενδε [

. . . . . . . . . . . .‘… 

secretly having … having covered the bridechamber … in a circle around the throne …where the wine/Dionysus you said at one time … by ordinance … at another time they finished/completed everything through and through … back from … and even then … Αkmon accomplishing/achieving … axe … stood quiet against the child, you protected … unexpected… and then … (he/she) went … (you) abandoned all fear … seat of Zeus … and the Corybant resisted … (he/she) darted in the first … in the hands the sickle … one from one place, another from another … nor Eos left … of Zeus … of the well-plaited … (they) being exposed/stripped… and even then …’