Susan B. Anthony died today.


So in her memory I am reposting this piece on the position of women in Greco-Roman Egypt. 

Although there are a number of reasons why I find the Hellenistic era to be superior to the Classical period in Greek history, perhaps one of the most important has to do with the role of women in society. I love women, as anyone who knows me can attest. Since childhood my strongest relationships have all been with the fairer sex. Many of my favorite authors and the people who have had the greatest impact on my own spiritual development have been female.

Therefore it has always been difficult for me to read things such as:

“O Zeus, why need one say evil of women in detail? It would be enough if you say merely woman.” – Karkinos, Semele Fr. 70

“A man is best off with a nonentity – a woman who sits in the house useless in her stupidity. I hate clever women. I don’t want a woman in my house thinking more than a woman ought to think, because Aphrodite inspires more mischief in the clever ones, while a helpless woman is freed from folly by the simplicity of her thoughts.” – Euripides, Hippolytos 638-644

“A man who teaches a woman to write should recognize that he is providing poison to an asp.” – Menander, Synkrisis 1.209-210

“Poor men! We sold away our freedom of speech and our comfort and lead the life of slaves with our wives. We’re not free. We can’t say we don’t pay a price for their dowries: bitterness and women’s anger. Compared to that, a man’s is honey, for men forgive when someone does them wrong, but women do you wrong and keep on recriminating. They control what doesn’t belong to them and neglect what they should control.” – Alexis, Fr. 150

“A child is not permitted to make a will. For the law expressly forbids children and women from being able to make a contract about anything worth more than a bushel of barley.” – Isaeus 10.10g

It thus came as a breath of fresh air when I began to read about the position of women in Hellenistic society generally, and Ptolemaic and Greco-Roman Egypt in particular. The difference was like night and day, and I found myself continually surprised by how egalitarian and modern-sounding their society was, especially when compared with what we think we know about the situation in Classical Greece. (I say “think we know” because the fact is that many people – scholars included – have a very faulty understanding of such things. They are selective in the material they consider, leaving out all sorts of non-literary evidence that does not come from the wealthy, landed gentry of Athens, which often paints for us a very different picture of society and its sex relations. At another date I may come back and address the lop-sided view of Classical Greek women, but for the time being I would like to narrow my focus to another time period and geographical location, which is more my forte.)

To begin with, women held prominent religious positions in Ptolemaic and Greco-Roman Egypt. They served as priestesses for both Greek and Egyptian deities:

“Marcus Aurelius Apollonios, hierophant, to the ritual kanephoros of the village Nesmeimis, greetings. Please go to Sinkepha to the temple of Demeter, to perform the customary sacrifices for our lords the Emperors and their victory, for the rise of the Nile and increase of crops, and for favorable conditions of climate. I pray that you fare well.” – P. Oxy. 2782

“His mother being Petosiris, daughter of Harpaesis, of the city of Oxyrynchus, chief bearer in the temple of Thoeris and Isis and Serapis and Osiris and the associated most mighty gods …” – P. Oxy. CCXLI

They formed their own religious associations:

“Therous and Teos to King Ptolemy, greeting. We are wronged by Temosis, Senemenopis, Teteim[…] and the other members of the women’s thiasos from Kerkethoeris in the Polemon division. For Soeris, my sister and wife of the aforementioned Teos, who was a member of the aforementioned group and held the post of priestess for the group for four years, chanced to die. Apart from us she had no close relatives, but when those named were asked for the cost of her burial they did not pay it.” – P.Enteux. 21

They served as oracles for the gods:

“Tomb of Temalis, prophetess of Ammon.” – ZPE 106.123

And their terms of office were even used for official dating purposes, alongside the reigns of the King and Queen:

“In year 2, 18 Phamenoth, of Queen Kleopatra and Ptolemy, mother-loving savior god […] when Aretine daughter of Theodoros was crown-bearer of Queen Kleopatra, when Kratera daughter of Theodoros was athlophoros of Berenike Euergetis, when Theodoris, daughter of Theodoros was fire-bearer, when Dionysia daughter of Dionysios was kanephoros, when Mnemosyne daughter of Nikanor was priestes … when Artemo daughter of Seleukos was priestess of Arsinoe Philopator ….” – P.Cairo dem. 30602

As seen in the above quote, the Ptolemaic Queens received divine cultus of their own. In death they could have elaborate temples built for them:

“Between the Pharian headland and the mouth of Canopos among the waves shining all around me, I have my place – this windy spur of Libya rich in lambs, reaching far toward the breath of Italian Zephyrus: here Kallikrates has raised me up and named me Queen Kypris Arsinoe’s temple. But come, chaste daughters of the Greeks, to her will be called Aphrodite Zephyritis, and come, too, men who toil in the sea: the admiral made this temple’s haven safe from every wave.” – Poseidippos G.P. 12

Nor was this merely a royal prerogative, for their humbler sisters could receive posthumous honors as well:

“No more shall I sacrifice to you, my daughter, with lamentation, now that I know that you have become a goddess. With libations and prayers celebrate Isidora, the Maiden, who has been snatched away by the Nymphs.” – I.Metr. 87

And women also competed successfully at the Panhellenic Games:

“The maiden queen with her chariot, yes, Berenike, has won all the crowns for chariot races in the games, from you, Zeus of Nemea. By the speed of her horses her chariot left behind the many drivers. And like…with slack reins the horses came to the judges of the Argolid.” – Poseidippos, P.Mil.Vogl. 12.34-39

Of course, this should really come as a surprise to no one. After all, even the most strident detractors of Classical Greece are forced to admit that however bad the general position of women might have been, in the religious realm they were on an equal footing with males. In fact, some ancient Greek men even considered women to be their superiors in religious matters, as we see in this quote by the 5th century Athenian playwright:

“Men’s criticism of women is worthless twanging of a bowstring and evil talk. Women are better than men, as I will show …. Women run households and protect within their homes what has been carried across the sea, and without a woman no home is clean or prosperous. Consider their role in religion, for that, in my opinion, comes first. We women play the most important part, because women prophesy the will of Loxias in the oracles of Phoibos. And at the holy site of Dodona near the Sacred Oak, females convey the will of Zeus to inquirers from Greece. As for the sacred rites of the Fates and the Nameless Goddesses, all these would not be holy if performed by men, but prosper in women’s hands. In this way women have a rightful share in the service of the gods. Why is it then, that women must have a bad reputation? Won’t men’s worthless criticism stop, and men who insist on blaming all women alike, if one woman turns out to be evil? Let me make the following distinctions: there is nothing worse than a bad woman, and nothing better in any way than a good one.” – Euripides, Melanippe Captive Fr. 13

Let us then turn to other areas of ancient life and see how well Hellenistic women fared in Egypt.

Women could receive a proper education:

“Platonis also known as Ophelia has apprenticed her female slave Thermouthion, a minor, to Lucius for four years from the first of the next month (Tybi) of the current year to learn a proper trade on the following terms: he will feed and clothe the girl, and will place her at the teacher’s disposal every day from sunrise to sunset.” – P.Oxy. 1647

“Heraidous sends greetings … so do Helen and Tinoutis and her father and everyone in the household and the mother dearest of Heraidous. Send the pigeons and small fowl, which I am not accustomed to eat, to Heraidous’ teacher. Helen, Apollonios’ mother, asks you to keep her son Hermaios in hand. Whatever is not eaten, send as a gift to my daughter’s teacher, so that he may take trouble over her. My best wishes to you. Choiak 17. Also, please see that I have the necessary equipment for school, such as a book for Heraidous to read.” – P.Giss 80, 85

Being literate gave women added status within their society, as we see in this letter from a woman named Aurelia Thaisous also known as Lolliane, who petitioned the Roman Prefect of Egypt in 263 CE:

“Women honored with the three-children privilege are given the right to act independently and to negotiate without a male legal representative in any business they transact, all the more so women who know how to write. Therefore, as I am blessed with the honor of many children and am able, being literate, to write with complete ease, I appeal to your highness …” – P.Oxy 1467

According to Naphtali Lewis, on page 63 of Life in Egypt Under Roman Rule (Clarendon Press, 1983), “in the metropoleis and even in some of the larger villages there were no lack of teachers of the rudiments of Greek … many of whom were women.”

We know, of course, one of the most famous of these female teachers, who taught far more than just the rudiments of a Greek education, the blessed Hypatia who received martyrdom in the early 5th century. Although her death was brought about by a mob incited to violence by the fanatic Bishop Cyril, many Christians regarded her highly, including her former student (who went on to become the Bishop of Ptolemais) Synesios of Kyrene and the author of the Ecclesiastical History, Socrates Scholasticus who wrote concerning her:

“There was a woman at Alexandria named Hypatia, daughter of the philosopher Theon, who made such attainments in literature and science, as to far surpass all the philosophers of her own time. Having succeeded to the school of Plato and Plotinus, she explained the principles of philosophy to her auditors, many of whom came from a distance to receive her instructions. On account of the self-possession and ease of manner, which she had acquired in consequence of the cultivation of her mind, she not unfrequently appeared in public in presence of the magistrates. Neither did she feel abashed in going to an assembly of men. For all men on account of her extraordinary dignity and virtue admired her the more.”

Nor were philosophy and religion the only paths open to a woman in Greco-Roman Egypt. We find women in a variety of fields.

Some were weavers:

“Bia is asking for the two rams’ fleeces which you left behind for spinning yarn. Write to us therefore whether they should be given to her. For she said that she is in need of woolen yarn and because of this is behind schedule.” – P.Mich. 1.16

Or fullers:

“Since you, Dionysios, have for a long time since the death of your father remained with me, your mother, and have worked at the fulling trade and have not abandoned me, but have treated your mother kindly, I acknowledge that I have ceded to both of you, my children in common and in equal shares all the fulling works and offices that I have built up and fostered through my labors and everything else pertaining to that trade on condition that it should remain with me as long as I survive.” – P.Coll. Youtie 2.83

Or wet-nurses:

“Regarding the matters at issue, Philotera agrees that she will furnish her slave Zosime for the duration of two years to raise and nurse at Philotera’s house the raised up slave-child that Sillis entrusted to her, a suckling female named Agalmation. The stipulated salary for milk and nourishment each month with oil and bread is 12 drachmas, while the total sum for two years of nursing is 288 silver drachmas which Philotera has right away received from Sillis in cash. Further, from the present moment she agrees to furnish her slave who is to take suitable care of herself and of the child, not spoiling her milk, neither engaging in sexual intercourse, nor becoming pregnant or nursing another child in addition.” – BGU 4.1058

Some were plantation-owners:

“From Klematia, landowner, to Papnouthis, manager at Sadalou, greeting. Measure out six artabs of wheat and lentil mixture into Pagas’ boat so that we may have it here, and help Pagas so that we may get the extra payments of the vintage there; and try also to bring wool up with the boat, and do not delay because of the baked brick. And collect from Paymis the two jars of honey for the festival, as well as honey-cakes, and from Pagas the wool.” – P.Oxy. XLVIII 3406

Or ran their own beer-shop:

“Haynchis to Zenon, greetings. I take beer from the large beer-shop and dispose of 4 drachmas worth daily, and pay regularly. But Demetrios the vine-dresser, having deceived my daughter, has carried her off and conceals her saying that he will set up house with her without my consent. And she helped me to manage the shop and supported me in my old age. Now therefore since she has gone away I am making a loss and I do not have the necessities of life. And he has another wife and children here, so that he cannot consort with the woman he had deceived. I therefore ask you to help me on account of my old age, and return her to me.” – P.Lond. 7.1976

While others were dancers who commanded handsome sums for their services:

“To Isidora, castanet dancer, from Artemesia, of the village of Theadelphia. I wish to hire you with two other castanet dancers to perform at my house six days from the 24th of Payni by the old reckoning. As your pay you shall receive 36 drachmas a day, and for the whole time 4 artabs of barley and 20 double loaves of bread. Whatever garments and gold ornaments you bring alone we will keep safe, and we will provide you with two donkeys for your trip down and the same for your trip back.” – P.Corn 9

Or courtesans whose fame extended beyond the grave:

“Was not Bilistiche, by Zeus, a barbarian female bought in the agora, she for whom the Alexandrians kept shrines and temples, on which the king, because of his love, inscribed the words ‘of Aphrodite Bilistiche’?” – Plutarch, Moralia 753ef

And in the case of the Ptolemaic Queens, women even steered the ship of state:

“Pyrrhos provided Ptolemy with proof of his strength and endurance both in hunting and athletics, and paid special court to Berenike since he saw that she was the most powerful of Ptolemy’s wives and the one with the most virtues and intelligence.” – Plutarch, Life of Pyrrhos 4.4

“Since … there are those who are attempting to overthrow the laws and ancestral institutions of the individual cities, King Ptolemy in accordance with the policy of his predecessors and of his sister Arsinoe, is giving open encouragement to common freedom for the Greeks.” – Syll3 434-5

“The one called Philometor is eighth in descent from Ptolemy son of Lagos, and his surname was given him in sarcastic mockery, for we know of none of the kings who was so hated by his mother. Although he was the eldest of her children she would not allow him to be called to the throne, but prevailed on his father before the call came to send him to Cyprus. Among the reasons assigned for Cleopatra’s enmity towards her son is her expectation that Alexander the younger of her sons would prove more subservient, and this consideration induced her to urge the Egyptians to choose Alexander as king. When the people offered opposition, she dispatched Alexander for the second time to Cyprus, ostensibly as general, but really because she wished by his means to make Ptolemy more afraid of her. Finally she covered with wounds those eunuchs she thought best disposed, and presented them to the people, making out that she was the victim of Ptolemy’s machinations, and that he had treated the eunuchs in such a fashion. The people of Alexandria rushed to kill Ptolemy, and when he escaped on board a ship, made Alexander, who returned from Cyprus, their king. Retribution for the exile of Ptolemy came upon Cleopatra, for she was put to death by Alexander, whom she herself had made to be king of the Egyptians.” – Pausanias 1.9.1-3

I can go on and on, but hopefully this little sketch has given you an idea of the diversity of occupations open to women in Greco-Roman Egypt.

What you may have noticed as well is the degree of autonomy that these women possessed.

They could amass their own personal fortunes:

“A hoard which my mother had secreted away in a little box containing a pair of gold ear-rings weighing 4 quarters, a gold crescent weighing 3 quarters, a pair of silver armlets of 12 drachmas’ weight, a necklace with silver ornaments worth 80 drachmas, and 60 silver drachmas in cash.” – P. Ryl. 125

Or sell the land that they owned:

“The woman Tanouphis daughter of Psenthotes, her mother being Ata, has said to the woman Senminis daughter of Pachnoumis, her mother being Tamenos: ‘You have satisfied my heart with the money of half of my 1/6 portion of the three plots of land which are in the estate of Amon on the island of the artisans on the west side of Thebes. [Description of the land and its contents.] I have given it to you. I have received their price in money from you, complete without any remainder. My heart is satisfied with it.’” – P.Berl.dem. 3142

And they could do so on their own, without having to go through a male intermediary. This independence extended to other legal matters as well.

We find, for instance, a woman bringing suit on behalf of her injured slave:

“To the strategos. I loved and took care of my serving girl, Peina, a homebred slave, as though my own little daughter, in the hope that when she came of age I would have her to nourish me in my old age, since I am a woman who is helpless and alone. The incident involved the crossing of the city on the 19th of last month, when a certain Eucharion, freedwoman of Longinus, was escorting her to her lesson in singing. When they came back Peina’s right hand was in bandages, and when I asked the cause Eucharion told me that the girl had been dashed down by a certain slave Polydeukes, as he was driving his donkey, so that as a result her whole hand was crushed. At first I thought her wound was superficial, but it is incurable, and I am unable to endure the pain concerning my serving girl, because she is in danger of losing her life and because I am in despair over her condition. You, too, will feel distressed when you see it. Of necessity, then, I have fled to you as my defender and ask that I be helped and receive from you the benefit of your judgment.” – P.Oxy. L. 3555

And a petition brought by two sisters over a misappropriated inheritance:

“To Aurelius Heron, strategos of the Arsinoite nome, from Aurelia Taesis and Aurellia Kyrillous, both daughters of Kopres from the village of Karanis. Our father, noblest of strategoi, left some moveable property when he died. But his brother Chairemon appropriated all that he left, and handed over to us, the women, arable arouras of public land, which we cannot afford the rents on. At the time we approached the headman of the village who was in office then, Serenos alias Harpokras; and he ordered him to hand over to us all the property left by our father. But Chairemon takes no thought for us, and therefore we include an inventory of the estate, and beg and beseech your clemency to order him to hand these things over to us so that we will be able to benefit from our own property.” – P.Cair.Isid. 64

And a woman could even sue for divorce, demanding the return of her dowry:

“To Heraklides priest and chief justice, also in charge of the circuit judges and the other courts, from Syra, daughter of Theon. I married Sarapion, having brought him a dowry valued at 200 drachmas, according to agreement. By taking him into my parents’ house because he was completely destitute, I conducted myself blamelessly in every respect. But Sarapion, after he squandered all my dowry as he liked, rendered no account of it, and disgraced me and insulted me and laid hands on me and deprived me of the necessities of life, and later on deserted me when I had become destitute. For this reason I ask you to order him to appear before you so that he will compelled to return the dowry with 50 per cent interest. Without prejudice to any other charges that I have or will make against him.” – P.Oxy. 281

In fact, divorce was fairly common in Greco-Roman Egypt, and women were frequently the ones who sought it.

The cause could be violent abuse:

“Concerning all the insults uttered by him against me: he shut up his own slaves and mine together with my foster daughters and his overseer and his son for seven whole days in his cellars, having insulted his slaves and my slave Zoe and almost killed them with blows, and he applied fire to my foster-daughters, having stripped them completely naked, which is contrary to the laws.” – P.Oxy. 6.903


“I am informed, being ill-disposed toward me and the child, that he has joined himself with another woman in Alexandria, from who he has also produced a child, and he has told his father by letter to sell his house and allotment for cash. I ask you, if it seems appropriate, to order him to be summoned before you and to help compel him to return to me for life’s necessities the dowry, so that I may receive it back. Farewell.” – BGU 8.1848

Or even the work of an evil spirit:

“We agree with each other as to the matters set forth below. Since some time ago we were joined with each other for a legitimate marriage and community of life, with good hopes and for the procreation of children; but now, a dispute having grown up between us because of an evil daimon, we have separated from one another. We agree that each party has received back its personal property in full, and that we have and will have no cause against each other in the future.” – P.Lond. 5.1712

Women in Greco-Roman Egypt had a lot more say in who they would marry, and could even negotiate the terms of that marriage. The marriage contracts from this period provide a fascinating glimpse into people’s private lives:

“In the reign of Alexander son of Alexander, in the seventh year, in the satrapy of Ptolemy, in the fourteenth year, in the month Dios. Marriage contract of Herakleides and Demetria. Herakleides takes as his lawful wife Demetria the Koan, a free man and a free woman, from her father Leptines, Koan, and her mother Philotis, Demetria bringing her clothing and ornaments to the value of 1000 drachmas, and Herakleides is to supply to Demetria all that is proper for a freeborn wife, and we shall live together wherever it seems best. If Demetria is discovered doing any evil to the shame of her husband Herakleides, she is to be deprived of all that she brought, but Herakleides shall prove whatever he alleges against Demetria before three men whom they both approve. It shall not be permitted for Herakleides to bring home another wife in insult to Demetria or to have children by another woman, or to do evil against Demetria on any pretext.” – P.Eleph I

“You have contented my heart with 21 deben of pure silver of the treasury of Ptah as your endowment. To the children which you have borne to me and the children which you will bear to me belongs everything that I possess and all that I shall acquire. Your eldest son is my eldest son among the children. You are entitled to the arrears of your food-and-clothing allowance, which will come to my charge. I shall give them to you. Everything that I possess and that I shall acquire is security for your above-mentioned allowance. I shall not be able to say to you, ‘Receive back your above-mentioned endowment from my hand.’ But on the day that you want it back from, I will give it to you. I will not be able to impose an oath upon you except in the house of judgment.” – P.Mich.inv. 4526

“Thais, daughter of Tarouthinos, swears to … son of Hermogenes, by Osiris and Isis, and Horos, and Zeus, and all the other gods and goddesses to remain with you for as long as you live, dwelling with you as your legitimate wife, neither sleeping away from your bed, nor being absent from your house for even a day, and to be affectionate to you and to … neglect nothing of yours. I will not be together with any other man, in the way of women, except with you, nor shall I prepare love charms against you, or put poison in your beverages or in your food, nor shall I connive with any man who does you harm on any pretense.” – PSI 1.64

A woman could give herself in marriage to whomever she wished, and there was another important difference as well. In Classical Athens a father could remove his married daughter from her husband, even against her will, and thereafter give her in marriage to another. But in Greco-Roman Egypt things were different. In 128 CE the Prefect of Egypt had ruled, “It matters with whom the married woman wishes to live.” Five years later, an Epistrategos, citing that prefectural ruling, “ordered that the woman be asked what her wish was. She replied, ‘To remain with my husband,’ and he so ordered.” (P.Oxy 237)

After a divorce, a woman was completely free of the influence of her husband and his family, as we see in a Demotic divorce settlement:

“The pastophoros of Amon of Jeme, Harpaesis son of Esnechates and Thatres, has said to the woman Tetosiris daughter of Pachombekis and Senimothis: I have repudiated you as wife; I am far from you regarding the right to you as a wife. I have no claim against you in the name of your being my wife. I am the one who says to you, ‘Take yourself a husband.’ I shall not be able to stand in your way in any place where you will go. If I shall find you with any other man on earth, I shall not be able to say to you, ‘You are my wife.’ You are contended with your contract for a wife, on account of your children whom you have borne to me, without any legal document, without anything on earth with you.” – P.Tor.Botti 16

Of course, even without divorce a woman was free to leave the marriage if she was unhappy and refuse to return to her husband, whose only recourse was to plead with her pitifully:

“Serenus to Isidora, his sister and wife, very many greetings. Before all else I pray that you are well, and every morning and evening I do obeisance in your name before Thoeris, who loves you. I want you to know that ever since you left me I have been in mourning, weeping at night and lamenting by day. After I bathed with you on Phaophi 12 I had neither bath nor oil-rub til Hathyr 12 (30 days later) when I received from you a letter that can shatter a rock, so much did your words upset me … Are you coming back or not coming? Tell me that.” – P.Oxy 528

A woman even had control of her own reproductive rights. In 8 BCE a young woman was recently widowed. She wrote to the family of her former husband, acknowledging that she had received back the dowry that she had brought to the marriage and stating:

“Although she is pregnant, she will make no claim regarding the expense of her childbed, since she has been satisfied monetarily for that, but she retains the right to expose the infant and unite herself to another man if she so wishes.” – P.Oxy. 744

The Alexandrian physician Soranos wrote at length about the methods used by the women of his society to end their pregnancies:

“In order that the embryo be separated, the woman should have more violent exercise, walking about energetically and being shaken by means of draught animals; she should also leap energetically and carry things which are heavy beyond her strength. She should use diuretic decoctions which also have the power to bring on menstruation, and empty and purge the abdomen with relatively pungent clysters; sometimes using warm and sweet olive oil as injections, sometimes anointing the whole body thoroughly therewith and rubbing it vigorously, especially around the pubes, the abdomen, and the loins, bathing daily in sweet water which is not too hot, lingering in the baths and drinking first a little wine and living on pungent food. If this is without effect, one must also treat locally by having her sit in a bath of a decoction of linseed, fenugreek, mallow, marsh mallow, and wormwood. She must also use poultices of the same substances and have injections of old oil, alone or together with rue juice or maybe with honey, or of iris oil, or of absinthium together with honey, or of panax balm or else spelt together with rue and honey, or of Syrian unguent. And if the situation remains the same she must no long apply the common poultices, but those made of meal of lupins together with ox bile and absinthium, and she must use plasters of a similar kind. For a woman who intends to have an abortion, it is necessary for two or even three days beforehand to take protracted baths, little food and to use softening vaginal suppositories; also to abstain from wine; then to be bled and a relatively great quantity taken away. For the cidtum of Hippokrates in the Aphorisms, even if not true in a case of constriction, is yet true of a healthy woman: ‘A pregnant woman if bled, miscarries.’ For just as sweat, urine, and feces are excreted if the parts containing these substances slacken very much, so the fetus falls out after the uterus dilates. Following the venesection one must shake her by means of draught animals (for now the shaking is more effective on the parts which previously have been relaxed) and most use softening vaginal suppositories. But if the woman reacts unfavorably to venesection and is languid, one must first relax the parts by means of hip-baths, full baths, softening vaginal suppositories, by keeping her on water and limited food, and by means of aperients and the application of a softening clyster; afterwards one must apply an abortive vaginal suppository. Of the latter one should choose those which are not too pungent, that they may not cause too great a sympathetic reaction and heat. One must, however, beware of things that are too powerful and of separating the embryo by means of something sharp-edged, for danger arises that some of the adjacent parts be wounded. After the abortion one must treat as for inflammation.” – Gynaecology 1.64-65

Few societies have given women such freedom, such opportunity, such high regard – in fact, many of the basic rights that Greco-Egyptian women took for granted wouldn’t be seen again in the Western world until very recently, and then only after long and bitter fights. In many parts of the world women still lack these basic human rights, and there are forces at work in the West which seek to erode them. We polytheists today, however, can look back on a noble heritage of equality and strive to make that dream a reality for everyone, since it was such a fundamental part of the cultures that shape our religious systems.


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